Analog Jeep Comfort

1 Jeep Grand Wagoneer 1963 Ford Mustang 1964 Ferguson Mustang - having system version Jensen Interceptor GT Jensen FF 1965 полноприводная версия купе Jensen Interceptor. Первый серийный полноприводный автомобиль с самоблокирующимся межосевым дифференциалом. Subaru Leone Sedan 4WD 1972 AMC Eagle 1980 Audi Quattro 1983 Toyota-Tercel 1983
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4 Jeep Wagoneer (преемник Willys Jeep Station Wagon) - первый роскошный внедорожник (пионер концепции Sport Utility Vehicle –SUV), представленный в 1963 и производившийся с незначительными изменениями 28-лет . По сравнению с предложениями от General Motors, International Harvester (Harvester Scout), и Land Rover - ориентированных на транспортные средства со спартанским интерьером, Wagoneer предложил на 4WD автомобиле усилитель руля и автоматическую коробку передач. (Стандартная Part-Time, в качестве опции на модификациях Limited и Super могла устанавливаться система постоянного полного привода Quadra Trac- Borg Warner 1339 с межосевым самоблокирующимся дифференциалом.) Wagoneer дебютировал за семь лет до Land Rover. Дизайнер модели Wagoneer - Clifford Brooks STEVENS Ford Mustang 1965 г в который британская компания Harry Ferguson Research имплантировала трансмиссию 4х4. Ирландский инженер Гарри Фергюсон был убежденным поклонником полноприводной техники - однажды он сконструировал автомобиль Формулы 1 с колесной формулой 4х4. После его смерти в октябре 1960 г основанная им компания не потеряла ориентиры и, среди прочего, произвела на свет неожиданный проект - Ford Mustang со всеми ведущими. Внешне Ford Mustang 1965 года практически ничем не отличаются от канонически заднеприводных моделей, однако внутри размещалась фирменная система 4х4 FF . Проект был создан в надежде заинтересовать потенциальных клиентов возможностями подобной техники, но дальше трех экземпляров дело не пошло. Компания Harry Ferguson теперь известна под именем Massey Ferguson и является одним из лидеров по производству аграрной техники. Jensen FF (1966—1971) — полноприводная версия купе Jensen Interceptor. 'FF' расшифровывается как 'Ferguson Formula' Экспериментальный седан Ferguson R4 разрабатывался шесть лет. Имел полный привод с электромеханической антиблокировочной системой Dunlop MaxaRet, позаимствованной из авиации. На должности главного конструктора работал Клод Хилл ( Claude Hill - бывший Aston Martin Managing Director). Разместить узлы и агрегаты привода на передние колеса помогла особенность компоновки: двигатель находился за осью передних колес, поэтому оказалось возможным расположить главную передачу переднего моста между мотором и радиатором. Карданный вал для привода передних колес поместили слева от силового агрегата (машина с «правым рулем»). Ferguson R5 был подготовлен к серийному производству в 1962 году. Выпуск первого в мире полноприводного универсала с межосевым самоблокирующимся дифференциалом и с АБС состоялся в 1966 г. Авторы изобретения Claude Hill , Rolt Anthony P R Drive for independently suspended vehicle wheels (patents US2796943 ) http://www.google.com/patents/US3339661 Subaru Leone.
Subaru Leone 4WD Station Wagon (1972—1979) — полноприводная версия переднеприводной машины с подключаемым вручную приводом на задние колеса. Кроме универсала, полным приводом оснащались седан и пикап. Первые полноприводные автомобили Subaru не имели постоянного полного привода — он был подключаемым.
The AMC Eagle was the first production car to use the complete "Ferguson Formula" (FF) full-time all-wheel-drive system from Britain's Ferguson Research. Other four-wheel-drive automobile-type vehicles - the Subaru DL/GL (1972 for the Japanese domestic market and two years later in the U.S.), and much later the Toyota Tercel SR5 Wagon (1983) - only had part-time four-wheel-drive systems that could not be engaged on dry pavement The Eagle was also years ahead of Subaru's simplistic, part-time front-drive/4WD system, due to Roy Lunn's creativity and Jeep's experience producing 4WD vehicles. Another feature was the Eagle's independent front suspension, accomplished by mounting the front differential to the engine block with universal joints and half shafts to drive the front wheels.
(In 1971 Lunn joined American Motors as director of engineering for Jeep which had recently been acquired by AMC. He went on to become vice-president of engineering for AMC with his notable accomplishments being the Jeep XJ Cherokee which was the first of the modern range of SUV vehicles and the Eagle, which was America's first 4WD car.) The Eagle started out as a skunk works project of Lunn and his team. The first drawings were done in the basement of Lunn’s Ann Arbor home (some very significant cars started out in designers’ and engineers’ basements and kitchens, by the way). Jeep had earlier introduced the first true production full-time four wheel drive system, offering it as an option on their utility vehicles. Based on the Ferguson Formula (FF) full-time all-wheel-drive system invented by Britain’s Ferguson Research Ltd, and developed by AMC/Jeep and the New Process Gear company, the first “QuadraTrac” system used a conventional differential between the front and rear axles. It could be engaged on the fly while driving on pavement, or just left in 4WD mode all the time.
Развитие проекта полноприводного автомобиля началось весной 1977, которым занимались Jorg Bensinger, начальник отдела экспериментальной ходовой части и проводивший в это время в Финляндии испытания 75-сильного внедорожника Iltis, Walter Treser, руководитель проекта и давший название проекта Quattro, и внук легендарного Ferdinand Porsche - Ferdinand Piech, главный инженер. Первоначально планировалось название — CARAT - аббревиатура слова Coupeallrandantriebturbo, что означает «полноприводное турбокупе». В сентябре 1977 совет директоров Audi дал проекту А1 зеленый свет и присвоил ему идентификационный номер EA 262 (код разработки 262). Через два месяца был готов образец для серийного производства и начаты дорожные испытания. Команда разработчиков держала под постоянным контролем все технические требования, все потенциальные недостатки. Но одного этого было недостаточно для начала серийного производства — ведь Audi была исследовательским и производственным подразделением Volkswagen. Проект было решено представлять не в штаб-квартире Volkswagen а в Туррахер Хое в январе 1978. В это время года самая высокогорная трасса Европы была покрыта снегом, что создавало идеальные условия демонстрации полного привода и возможностей автомобиля The Tercel 4WD models could be equipped with manual transmission, and could be shifted from two- to FWD drive without coming to a stop. The sixth gear it carried was an "Extra Low" (EL) first gear, a standard transmission gear with a very low (4.71:1) gear-ratio. The EL gear generated a 17.6:1 final drive ratio, giving the driver the torque needed to extract the vehicle from conditions which otherwise may have trapped it. It was only available when in, and because of its low gear-ratio it was suitable only for very low-speed use. The engine, transaxle and front-wheel-drive system was from the existing Tercel. The coil-sprung, live rear axle was taken from the rear-WD Corolla. The only part specifically designed for the new Tercel 4WD was the transfer case, built into the transmission. This gave the driver greater versatility than was possible on a purely FWD vehicle, as it provided three different power arrangements. Normally, the car would be operated with front-WDl drive. When the driver pulled the 4WD selector lever back into FWD, or pressed a button on the gear selector for the automatic transmission, front and rear differentials were driven at the same RPM via a direct mechanical coupling. There is no conventional center differential, so the FWD system could be used only on loose or slippery road surfaces (such as snow, gravel, or sand); otherwise the drivetrain would experience severe wear, and handling would be compromised. The third power option (which was only available on the six-speed manual) was low range. This isn't the same as the low-range power option found in a truck or conventional SUV, as the Tercel lacked a high-range/low-range transfer case. When the lever was placed in FWD mode it became possible to down shift the vehicle from first to EL (extra low).

The History Of The 4 Wheel Drive
The four wheel drive was born at the beginning of the last century, developed by a succession of visionaries, that started with a Wisconsin blacksmith and continued with such men as Harry Armenius Miller and Harry Ferguson. They never would have believed their development would prove to be the most popular "school" transport a century later.
The first four wheel drive car was built in 1903, but it wasn't until the early 1980's that the concept again found favour in series production, and even then only one major manufacturer had enough faith in the concept to make it an integral part of the range, other than for off-road use. That company was Audi, which offered two Quattro models.
It is strange that the same enthusiasm that greeted the Quattro on its first appearance at Geneva in 1980 was also shown towards other 4 x 4 designs that had preceded it. Road cars like the Jensen FF, racing designs such as the Cisitalia 47, and the various Formula 1 prototypes of the seventies together with sophisticated off-road models like the Range Rover, were all acclaimed on their introduction, but only the cross-country vehicles prospered. In many cases, the problem had been technical (the lack of an effective constant velocity joint prior to 1930 being a major consideration), or financial.
Prior to the Quattro, most of the vehicles lacked proper development and marketing back-up, and many of them featured four-wheel drive in combination with other advanced techniques, such as turbine engines or anti-lock braking systems for example, which made the vehicle package too complicated for commercial success. Others, like the AMC Eagle and the Subaru Leone, aimed their designs more at the off-road user than the road driver (although things would change at Subaru over the years, with their stellar All-Wheel-Drive system). Fortunately, military users had been constant four-wheel drive devotees since the Second World War, and it is to the military that we must give thanks indirectly - for the development of the Audi Quattro range and all that followed Audi's lead.
The American army made the first move in 1912, when it began to swap some of its horse-drawn carts for trucks made by the FWD Auto company, which featured four wheel drive - as the initials implied. In June 1940, the army asked its suppliers for proposals for a "General Purpose 4 x 4 Truck" that would have a maximum speed of 50 mph and cross-country capability. The American Bantam Car Company, formed to build the Austin 7 under license, called on a freelance designer from Detroit, Karl Probst, who came up with a set of plans in only five days. The prototype was completed in 49 days, and Bantam won a contract to supply 3000 examples of the vehicle, which was already known as the "Jeep" from its "General Purpose" title. Later, Ford and Willys Overland were to take over the contract because of their more competitive prices, and between 1941 and 1945 more than 600,000 Jeeps, all following Probst's original concept, were to spread the 4 x 4 message throughout the world.
Before and during the war, only the Americans had espoused the Jeep concept. Sure, there was the German amphibious Schwimmwagen designed by Dr. Porsche which featured all-wheel drive, as did a total of 564 special VW Beetles built between 1942 and 1944, but the best-known German military vehicle, the Kubelwagen, had rear-wheel drive only. After the war, however, every general in every country was on the lookout for a Jeep of his own. In 1946, just as the US Government demobilized its GI's, so did Willys Overland demobilize the Jeep, turning it into a relatively comfortable closed vehicle while retaining its military forbear's off-road abilities. The Universal, as it was known, created a new class of vehicle that was to enjoy an ever-increasing popularity, particularly in the USA. The age of the off road leisure vehicle had arrived - however unlike the luxury 4x4's that command the roads today, in their infancy it was the dirtier and more un kemp off-road vehicles that better expressed the macho appeal of the 4 wheel drive.
Austro-Daimler armoured car with four powered wheels. It was first demonstrated during manreuvres of the Austrian army in 1906. It was turned down because Emperor Franz-Josef said it was unsuitable for military use since "it would frighten the horses".
In 1954, following this train of military thought, the German army approached a number of constructors and asked them to submit prototypes for evaluation. The model chosen was that from Auto Union, the DKW Munga. It was notable for the fact that most of the major suspension units were interchangeable front and rear. Twenty-two years later the same construtor, which had changed its name to Audi in the interim, was successful in winning another contract, this giving birth to the VW lItis, the direct descendant of the Munga. It was during winter trials one day - or so the story we have been told - that engineer Jorg Bensinger watched the lItis performing alongside some Audi prototypes and had the idea of adapting the lItis running gear to a road car.
To the credit of the Audi management, they accepted the idea and sold it to corporate headquarters at Wolsfburg. The investment in the Quattro was made, and development carried through tiII the car was a saleable commodity. The final investment, an important one, was in a strong promotional campaign designed to overcome the ignorance and general malaise which surrounded the 4 x 4 concept for road cars. The Quattro's success in rallies was an important part of that campaign.
The story of Harry Ferguson, a man who was probably ahead of his times, is interesting. Starting in 1950, the wealthy tractor manufacturer undertook the task of convincing the motor industry of the advantages of all-wheel drive for road cars, in terms of both safety and efficiency. However, if any manufacturer was impressed by his arguments they did nothing to show it in terms of action.
Harry Ferguson Research built prototypes of a sedan with four-wheel drive and all-independent suspension - the engine was mounted in a sub-frame at the front, the transmission was semi-automatic, and the brakes were equipped with Dunlop's Maxaret anti-skid system.
A Mustang fitted with Ferguson "All Wheel Control" and a Capri that followed it almost convinced Ford. Chrysler took out a licence for production in the USA, and a transverse-engined Austin 1800 impressed BMC. The Ferguson system could have won at Indianapolis, but was banned by USAC before it could have a chance to make its mark.
In 1965, Jensen went into production with the Interceptor FF, a car relying heavily on Ferguson technology, using an uneven torque split of 63 percent rear and 37 percent front. However, of the 5000 or so Interceptors sold between 1966 and 1971, less than 400 were FF versions. The vehicle's downfall was its high price, lack of forceful marketing and promotion, and the failing of its Maxaret brakes.
With its name changed to FF (Ferguson Formula) Developments, in 1972 the small British firm built two prototypes for Fiat on the base of a 130 and a 128. There was no immediate reaction from the Italian giant, but ten years later they used the principal of the epicyclic differential for both the Lancia Delta Turbo 4 x 4 and the Panda 4 x 4.
In 1979, AMC adopted the Ferguson system for use in its Eagle for the American market. In the meantime, Ferguson had perfected its Viscous Control system, which used a viscous coupling to achieve a progressive self-locking effect, and which was used in the rear-wheel drive Sunbeam Lotus Rally cars as a self-locking differential.
Unfortunately, AMC decided to revert to the less-sophisticated Quadra-Trac for its Jeeps and part-time 4 x 4 road cars, but then along came Peugeot. In the 205 Turbo the differentials operated normally and had no effect on steering or road-holding. In the event of a lack of traction, the silicone-faced discs of the Ferguson coupling automatically locked almost completely, although there was a degree of slip similar to that which takes place in a hydraulic torque-convertor. In order to cover all eventualities, Peugeot also used a conventional ZF limited-slip differential in the rear and made provision for a similar fitting at the front.
All this mechanical complexity was designed to extract the maximum from a car weighing around 2000 pounds and propelled by an engine that developed more than 300 horsepower in competition trim. It served to show that there was almost no limit to the search for perfection in a four-wheel drive configuration, and consequently almost no limit to the costs involved.
It took three years from the announcement of the Quattro before a serious motoring magazine - Germany's Auto Motor und Sport - carried out comparative tests that showed that four-wheel drive gave no advantage in terms of road-holding - on wet, dry, or snow-covered surfaces - no protection against aquaplaning or loss of control on black ice, and no reduction in braking distances. But four-wheel drive did improve grip - the ability to move away from rest and accelerate - phenomenally, because the engine's torque is split into four smaller units rather than two big ones and is fed through four tyres rather than just two. The advantage is most noticeable on snow or wet surfaces, and even more so with a powerful engine.
An additional advantage is that under certain conditions, a 4 x 4 car also enjoys advantages in braking. The conditions are obtained when the two axles are locked. Ideally, the rear differential should also be locked, and in this configuration no one wheel can lock before any of the others, a situation which compromises the stability of the car and its decelerative qualities. Until more recent advances in four wheel drive systems, it was still possible that all four wheels would lock at the same time. This was a state of affairs that could arise only too easily when descending a snow-covered slope - exactly the occasion many people saw as the justification for purchase of a four-wheel drive car.
Again we turn to the design of the Quattro to discover just how the Audi engineers developed such a brilliant system. With their design, the two driven axles shared the burdens of propelling and controlling the car, instead of having one overworked while the other had nothing to do, and this facility was coupled to great powers of acceleration. The driver could put the power on in the middle of a corner, well over the limit and much earlier than any other type of car previously built, and experience neither sliding nor unbalance.
It was during the early 1980s that the 4WD again became popular, signifying a lifestyle that could take the owner almost anywhere, even if the opportunities were limited in the world of concrete and freeways. They became popular in America, Europe and Australia, and it seemed as if all the major manufacturers wanted to have one in their lineup. At first this allowed a niche for the smaller Japanese players, such as Suzuki with their popular LJ80 and Daihatsu with their F20 and subsequent Rocky. Along with the Land Rover, the true off-road vehicle was found to be lacking in such qualities as comfort, performance, road holding in the wet, and fuel consumptin when it was primarily used on the roadhowever.
But things were about to change - the AMC Eagle and the Subaru Leone combined a light 4 x 4 chassis with family car comfort, the Subaru even featuring a liquid crystal display instrument panel. Interested by the possibilities of the class, Toyota joined in with the Tercel 4 x 4 and they were followed by Renault, Fiat, and Alfa Romeo. These experiments in taking the family car off the beaten track had only two characteristics - they had four-wheel drive and they were looking for a market that nobody had defined.
With their modestly increased ground clearance, off-road tyres, simple rigid-axle suspension, and family car power output levels, the first crop of off-road sedans used the advantage of four-wheel drive to enable them to stray from the paved road when necessary. But there was a fundamental difference with the Quattro, which used its sophisticated suspension and tyres, low ground clearance and high-powered engines to keep them on the road under hard driving.
Nearly all the early 4WD sedans used a four-wheel drive system that was only used when it was required. This "in or out" system was the simplest and the cheapest, but it limited the occasions on which four-wheel drive could be used because of the absence of a central differential. The centre differential - or the disengagement of the four-wheel drive system - was needed for road use because the front and rear wheels of any vehicle describe different arcs while cornering and must therefore rotate at different speeds. The "in and out" system was therefore of less interest for high-performance road cars of the 1980's.
The problem of the speed difference between the two axles led to some unusual solutions among the many proposed, including the use of four-wheel steering. This gave the two axles a similar cornering radius and had been used most often on commercial vehicles, starting with the FWD wagon of 1904. In Porsche's experimental 911 Turbo 4 x 4, another method was chosen: the drive shaft to the front wheels incorporated a free-wheel mechanism allowing the front wheels to rotate at a higher speed than those at the rear during cornering. However, when this happened they were not transmitting the engine's torque.
Audi chose to use permanent four-wheel drive, with a central differential and a rear differential that could be locked by the driver at will. Locking the centre differential is recommended on slippery surfaces, and in order to extract the maximum from the car on difficult terrain the rear axle could also be locked. This action had its effect on the car's handling however, causing understeer characteristics that were almost impossible to overcome in the case of an error by the driver. In the case of the competition model, it Michele Mouton and her colleagues had to resort to a fair degree of acrobatic agility to get the car sideways when it was necessary. It is for this reason that Audi tried a limited-slip rear differential instead of the manually operated 100 percent lock-up device.
The majority of early 4WD cars, including the Quattro, used a 50/50 split, which was about right when you consider the weight transfer that takes place during heavy acceleration. The Lancia Delta Turbo 4 x 4 had a 58 percent front and 42 percent rear torque split, which reflected the vehicle's weight distribution. A purist however would probably prefer 40 percent of the torque to the front, in order to avoid overloading the steering wheels, and 60 percent to the rear, where weight is transferred during acceleration. To balance this split, he would mount the engine in a centre/rear position to give the right weight distribution. The result of his work would be the Peugeot 205 Turbo 16.
Of course, Peugeot sacrificed all to efficiency, with no concessions to passenger space or economy in construction or operation. The 205 Turbo 16 was a two-seater built purely and simply to win rallies, while Audi were using rallies to prove the efficiency of a system that was applicable to its entire range. In order to homologate the 205 Turbo 16 for international competition, Peugeot will had to build at least 200 of the 200- horsepower bolides. The Peugeot's engine was mounted transversely, ahead of the rear axle, and the torque split could be varied from 25/75 to 45/ 55 by changing the pinions in an epicyclic differential.
This worked in the same fashion as a normal differential, but all its pinions revolved in the same plane. Engine torque was transmitted to the planetary gear carrier, and the planet gears engaged on a central sun gear and an internally toothed crownwheel. The difference in torque output was dependent upon the difference in diameter between the central sun gear and the crownwheel. The differential was developed for Peugeot by FF Developments Ltd, formerly Harry Ferguson Research.
The increased weight of a 4 x 4 system inflicts a penalty in terms of fuel economy; on the highway, where the influence of the extra weight is less noticeable, thanks to the reduced need for acceleration and deceleration, a four-wheel drive car can show a marginal improvement in consumption unless it is driven at maximum speed. The reason for the improvement is that driven wheels exert a lower rolling resistance than those which are being pulled or pushed. At maximum speed however, the mechanical losses inherent in the more complicated drive-line make themselves felt in terms of fuel consumption.
The disengagement of one set of driving wheels, a standard feature of most of the off-road sedans of the 1980's, gave little to no saving in fuel because the weight still had to be moved and the disconnected differential and drive shafts still continued to turn, being driven by the cars forward motion rather than directly by the engine. To counter this latter problem, early off-road designs usually incorporated a freewheel mechanism in the front hubs that worked when the drive was disconnected - but the weight, however, was still present.
Things changed rapidly over the next 20 years, and one manufacturer was to claim the high ground in 4WD technology, applying this to all models in their lineup (albiet re-branding it as All Wheel Drive). Performance manufacturers soon realised the benefits of being able to put the power down on the road outweighed the weight penalty, and of course the large true off road vehicle evolved into an entirely different beast, the vast majority never venturing outside the city, and mainly spotted picking up the kids from school.

Все о полном приводе. "Формула Фергюсона" или привод с самоблокирующимся дифференциалом. Следующим этапом в развитии полного привода, является создание самоблокирующихся дифференциалов. Межосевой дифференциал создан для того, чтобы «развязать» обе ведущие оси. Например, задние колеса бешено буксуют, а передние стоят на месте. И дифференциал этому никак не препятствует!
«Лекарство» от этого недуга впервые придумали конструкторы внедорожников - это принудительная блокировка. В нужный мо мент водитель дергает за рычаг, механизм намертво фиксирует шестерни межосевого дифференциала — и трансмиосия из дифференциальной, «свободной», становится жестко замкнутой. Именно по этой схеме были сделаны и первые поколения автомобилей Range Rover, и наша Нива, и множество других внедорожников, И, кстати, первые автомобили Аudi Quattro тоже - в этих машинах до 1984 года водителю приходилось самостоятельно включать блокировку межосевого дифференциала,
Но это решение опять-таки паллиативное: блокировку на дорожной машине можно задействовать только на бездорожье. А на асфальте ее нужно выключать, И если автомобиль внезапно попадет на скользкий участок, колеса одной из осей при подаче тяги начнут буксовать раньше других.
А можно ли сделать так, чтобы дифференциал при пробуксовке блокировался сам, автоматически?
Внедрение самоблокирующегося межосевого дифференциала связано с именем англичанина
Тони Ролта, гонщика и конструктора.Он и его друг Фред Диксон, тоже гонщик и страстный любитель повозиться с автомобильными железками, еще до войны открыли собственное бюро Rolt/Dixon Developments по подготовке гоночных автомобилей, После войны два друга увлеклись идеей постоянного полного привода. Построив экспериментальную полноприводную «тележку» под названием «Краб», Ролт и Диксон в 1950 году перешли под крыло Гарри Фергюсона, преуспевающего тракторного фабриканта. Так возникла фирма Harry Ferguson Research.
Фергюсона мало интересовали гоночные болиды, зато он мечтал о безопасном дорожном автомобиле, колеса которого не буксовали бы при разгоне и не блокировались при торможении. И Ролт с Диксоном решили спроектировать такую машину «с нуля» - полностью, включая кузов, трансмиссию и силовой агрегат!
Знаний друзьям не хватало, и на должность компетентного главного конструктора пригласили Клода Хима, который ради столь интересной работы покинул Аston Martin. Но, несмотря на финансы Фергюсона, работа шла неспешно - экспериментальный седан Ferguson R4 был готов только через шесть лет, Зато какой: полноприводный, с оппозитной «четверкой», с дисковыми тормозами на всех колесах и с электромеханической антиблокировочной системой Dunlop MaxaRet, позаимствованной из авиации! Но самое интересное для нас заключалось внутри раздаточной коробки прототипа. Разобрав ее, помимо дифференциала мы бы увидели еще дополнительный «набор» шестеренок, две шариковые обгонные муфты и два пакета фрикционов. Пока колеса не скользили, все это хозяйство мирно вращалось вхолостую. Но когда начиналась пробуксовка колес одной из осей и разность частот вращения выход-ных валов достигала определенной величины, одна из муфт срабатывала, сжимала «свой» пакет фрикционов - и те тормозили шестерни дифференциала, моментально блокируя его и превращая дифференциальный привод в жесткий!
Cледующии прототип Ferguson R5 1962 года, на подготовку которого снова ушло шесть лет, был еще интереснее - это был легковой полноприводный универсал. Эксперты журнала Аutocar, которые позже испытывали Ferguson R5, делились впечатлениями: «Автомобиль достигает предела скольжений на невероятно высоких скоростях!»
Но никто из автомобилестроителей так и не взялся за выпуск полноприводного Фергюсона - слишком сложным и дорогим получился бы серийный автомобиль. Однако в 1962 году Ролту все-таки удалось заинтересовать руководство компании Jensen - он предложил адаптировать полноприводную трансмиссию для купе JensonC-V8 с трехсотсильным крайслеровским мотором У8, которое тогда готовили к серийному производству. Полный привод оказался мощному и скоростному купе как нельзя кстати!
Через три года был построен экспериментальный полноприводный Jenson C-V8 FF. А в 1966 году появилась следующая модель - Jenson Interceptor с еще более мощной 325-сильной «восьмеркой». Кроме заднеприводного купе предлагался и вариант со скромным шильдиком FF. Это был знаменитый Jensen FF — первый в мире полноприводный серийный автомобиль с самоблокирующимся межосевым дифференциалом и с АБС! Буквы FF — это Formula Ferguson, обозначение запатентованной Ролтом и коллегами трансмиссии.
Все без исключения автомобильные журналисты того времени упоминали выдающуюся устойчивость полноприводных Дженсенов и «практически неограниченный запас тяги на мокром асфальте». Жаль, что самого Фергюсона к тому времени уже не было в живых - он умер в 1960-м...
Почему мы столь подробно рассказываем о Формуле Фергюсона? Да потому, что именно фирма Нarry Ferguson Research впервые в мире уделила столь серьезное внимание полному приводу как средству повышения активной безопасности!
Мы уже говорили, что привод на четыре колеса оставляет большийзапас по сцеплению для восприятия боковых сил. И это плюс, Но есть и минус - теряется однозначность реакций на подачу топлива. Если на мощном заднеприводном автомобиле в скользком повороте резко нажать на газ, это вызовет занос задней оси. На переднеприводной машине, наоборот, при подаче тяги в скольжение сорвутоя передние колеса. Хорошо это или плохо - не в том дело. Главное, что водитель всегда знает, как по-ведет себя автомобиль в таком случае.
А какая ось сорвется в скольжение на полноприводном автомобиле? На этот вопрос ответить непросто. Если в данный момент болыш разгружен передок или под перед-ними колесами более скользкое по-крытие, то начнется снос. А если худшие условия по сцеплению имеют задние колеса, то машина уйдет в занос. Реакция может быть неоднозначной! И это небезопасно. К счастью, Тони Ролт сам был гонщиком, причем очень хорошим - однажды, в начале 50-х, он даже выиграл 24-часовую гонку в Ле-Мане. Поэтому Ролт с коллегами с самого начала попытались избежать неоднозначности полного привода, применив несимметричный межосевой дифференциал. На задние колеса всех машин с фергюсоновскими трансмиссиями подавалось 63% крутящего момента, на передок — 37%. Таким образом реакция на увеличение тяги была приближена к «заднеприводной».
Самоблокирующийся дифференциал позволил Дженсену взять лучшее от обеих типов трансмиссий. Легкий вход в позорот и отсутствие циркуляции мощности в штатных режимах движения без пробуксовки — от дифференциалыного привода. А лучшую реализацию тяги двигателя при пробуксовке - от жесткого.
Но обгонные муфты механизма блокировки работали жестко, в пульсирующем режиме, моментально превращая несимметричный дифференциальный привод в блокированный и обратно. Поэтому при пробуксовке неоднозначность увеличивалась!
Был нужен механизм, который бы более гибко и плавно изменял степень блокировки межосевого дифференциала, И в конце 60-х го-дов Тони Ролт вместе с Дереком Гарднером, который позже был главным конструктором болидов Тyrell, занялись странными, на первый взгляд, экспериментами с силиконовой жидкостью, что пользовалась в муфтах привода вентиляторов радиаторов. Да-да, именно Ролт с Гарднером вошли в историю как изобретатели вискомуфты!

Поправки к формуле – I
Статьи на тему: Поправки к формуле Фергюсона
Самый полный привод.Алексей ВОСКРЕСЕНСКИЙ,Александр ДИВАКОВ, Леонид ГОЛОВАНОВ AR 2002 22
Формула Фергюсона

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