Nippon Nainenki Seiko
From the request of the Japanese army, the world's first light weight 4x4 vehicles were developed and named "Kurogane". From December 1937 after various improvements, a new type was produced. It carried 3 passengers, had a 1,400cc 33 horse power air cooled V two type cylinder engine. It had front wheel independent, rear wheel leaf spring suspension and large tires. From 1930 to 1939, about 4,800 vehicles of various types were made. The light weight 4x4 Kurogane was used for reconnaissance and communication in China, South East Asia, and the Pacific.

The Type 95 Kurogane ("Black Metal") reconnaissance car was a Japanese scout car used during the war with China and World War II in the East. Between 1937 and 1945 approximately 4,800 were built. It was the only completely Japanese designed reconnaissance car ever used by the Japanese Army, which tended to use civilian cars.
Tetsushi Makita, who had been involved with the development of the Otomo and Ares with Junya Toyokawa in the Hakuyosha Company, moved to a new position with the Nihon Jidosha Corporation, becoming responsible for the design of the JAC motor bike, New Era three-wheeler and Kurogane. This company became Nihon Nainenki in 1932 and focused on producing a three-wheeled version of the Kurogane. However, the Japanese army instructed Nainenki to develop Japan's first 4-wheel drive vehicle, which was formally adopted and mass-produced as the Type 95. Characterized by a water-cooled engine and low weight, the Kurogane's double wishbone independent front suspension and large tires meant that it was highly suitable for traversing rough terrain. * It should be noted that the joints of the front-wheel drive axles were all cruciform joints.
The Type 95 Scout Car was the Japanese Army's equivalent to the American Jeep or Soviet GAZ-67 light transportation vehicle. Commonly known as the Kurogane, or "Black Medal", the Type 95 was developed after Japanese experiences in the Manchurian region of northeastern China had revealed the need for a small fast scout car capable of operating on the edge of the battlefield. This was the only native vehicle of its kind used by the Japanese Army before and during World War II, most others being of American origin or pattern. Built in closed cab, truck and convertible versions, the Type 95 was fairly typical of pre-war Japanese car manufacture, being light and rather under-powered but proved to be an excellent vehicle for operations in northern China where it coped well with the local temperatures and its air-cooled engine was not reliant on the limited supplies of unpolluted water to be found in the region.
The Type 95 did, however, have some good features. The front suspension was independent, using coil springs, the four-wheel-drive was adventurous for a car of that size, and the economy of fuel was impressive. Special tyres with heavy rubber treads were provided to cope with difficult terrain but brakes were fitted only on the rear wheels. The Type 95's transmission was a selective sliding type with three forward and one reverse gear.
Although it was almost too light to be able to stand up to active service use on the battlefield it was nevertheless more than adequate for general employment in the home islands or in the rear areas of overseas theatres. Early models were issued with just two seats but Service use rapidly realised that this would not enough and the later vehicles had a third seat in the rear. In total about 4,800 were built by Nippon Nainenki Seiko between 1934 and 1945.
Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane" Type 95 is the small 4x4 car like Jeep of US forces and it was used for the scout and travelling purpose in the field. It loads an air-cooled two-cylinder engine which was converted from a motocycle engine. Type 95 was nicknamed as "Daruma".

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