Analog International Harvester 6x6 US Military truck

В соответсвии со справочником, изданным НИИ21 в 1966 г. "Автотракторная техника зарубежных стран", основные армейские 3-х осные полноприводные автомобили США разделены на 3 группы по грузоподъмности 2,5 5 и 10 т.
На тот период основными производителями были:
2.5 т. были REO -автомобиль M34 и GM - автомобиль M135 .
5 т - International Harvester - автомобиль M41
10 т. Mack - автомобиль M125

(The GMC CCKW-352 and CCKW-353 were the workhorses of the US Army in WW II. Immediately after the war, the US Army turned its attention to redesigning and modernising of the standardised 2.5 ton truck. Towards the end of the 1940 s a number of prototypes were produced by Chrysler under the designation T55 . Although this project doubtless helped to show the direction which the post-war 2 tonner would take, in itself it was a dead end, and in the beginning of the 1950 s, the Ordnance Department had drawn up a specification for a new design of 6x6 chassis which followed more conventional lines.

GMC , Reo and Studebaker all produced prototypes of what they hoped would become the standard truck in the class. GMC s contribution first appeared in 1950, and was powered by a petrol engine driving through a Hydramatic twin range 8-speed automatic transmission. In basic cargo form it was designated M135. It was also produced as tractor (M221), water tanker (M222) and dump truck (M215).
Studebaker newer moved beyond the prototype stage. The prototype was submitted for trials in 1949, but no series production took place and later Studebaker became involved in manufacturing the Reo design.
(The M35 started out in 1949 as a design by the REO Motor Car Company as a 2 1/2 ton three axle all wheel drive off road truck that was later nicknamed the "deuce and a half". The first vehicle in the family, the M34, was quickly superseded in military usage by the M35, the major difference being the M35's 10-tire configuration versus the M34's 6-tire configuration.)
(Production of the M-39 series of five ton trucks began in 1951, in a rush to meet requirements for the Korean War. By 1953 the trucks had been standardized and the early production by International Harvester, Diamond T, and Mack was replaced by much larger contracts with IH and Kaiser Jeep)
Reo Motors of Lancing, Michigan produced the M34 and the twin rear-wheeled M35. It was a no-nonsense truck with a conventional engine and drive-line lay-out.
The G742-series, dubbed the "Eager Beaver" by Reo s marketing department, was launched in 1951. The initial contract called for 5.000 vehicles with production start in early 1953.

Sterling DDS235 6x6 at factory DM

Corbitt 50SD6 6 ton 6x6 cargo truck.

Biederman 6x6 chassis

Knuckey PrototypeThe Knuckney Truck Company of San Francisco, in response to a War Department request, designed a huge tank transporter, dubbed the M-26, in 1943. Weight 22 tons

Mack NO heavy artillery-tractor 6X6

International M62 Wrecker.jpg

The model continued, with periodic changes, in production until the late 1980s and by that time more than 150.000 trucks had been produced.
Many body-types (dump truck, shop van, expansible shop van, tanker, tractor etc.) existed on several chassis variants, and some mounted with a 4.5 ton winch.
Over the years manufacturers like Studebaker, Curtiss Wright, Kaiser Jeep , AM General and White also produced large quantities of the G742 vehicles.
http://www.armyvehicles.dk/reom9.htm
Diamond T ( с 1958 г.собственность White ) собирала с 1951 г базовые шасси М39 и бортовой грузовик М41 а затем при поддержке International шасси М40А2, М61А2 и М63А2, послуживших базой для грузовиков М54А2 и М55А2. В 1967 г. Diamond и REO были объединены в группу Diamond REO. Производство военных автомобилей перешло к фирме Kaiser Jeep, а затем - к военной компании AM General.
Many of the concepts of the big and small all wheel drive trucks, from 1/2 ton to 7-1/2 ton, were developed by M-H in the 1930's. It is ironic that they didn't win any of the big contracts for U.S. all wheel drive trucks during the war, but they did a huge business with our allies with Lend-Lease. They are probably best known for converting Ford trucks to all wheel drive, starting in 1935. There were 4x4 and 6x6 models.
Technically, the only C-2's were the Corbitt, Biederman, , and Federal 7-1/2 ton wreckers built for the USAAF (some say Reo also built C-2's, but I am not entirely convinced of it). There were other similar trucks built for other branches of the services, but they were not designated as C-2's. I think after the War C-2 became a generic term in the civilian world for all similar trucks. Corbitt, Biederman, Federal, andReo also built the F-1 fuel tanker semi tractor, which had a nearly identical cab and chassis to the C-2 (the F-1 had a 5.5" longer wheelbase). The Federal F-1 was a model 605, the Reo a 29XS, and the Corbitt a 54SD6. The Biederman was simply an F-1. Reo also built a Cardox airport firefighting truck on the 29XS chassis (29FF ?). The Federal and Reo 7-1/2 tonners are nearly identical, the only difference in appearance besides the nameplate is the front fenders. The Federal fenders are somewhat "styled", while the Reo's are flatter in appearance. The Reo disc wheels also have more holes in them, but these are easily swapped around and not a sure thing.
Reo did build a 10 ton 6x6 aircraft salvage wrecker for the Navy, with equipment similar to the C-2. Reo built about 200 of these trucks, and a handful have survived. These trucks are not in any of the books, but are shown in a 1945 Reo Annual Report I have, plus I have photos of survivors. I have yet to come across a closeup photo of this truck while in the Navy, except for one with a cement mixer body on it (with USN markings !) The annual report does not make any mention of 7-1/2 ton wreckers, only the tractors and Cardox fire trucks.
Sterling also built a 10 ton 6x6 aircraft wrecker for the Navy in much larger numbers, the DDS235. I think the Sterling and Reo probably had similar specs, but the cabs did not look at all alike. Many of the Sterlings have survived, but not as many as the Federals. ..."http://www.twinbeech.com/federalc2wrecker.htm"
Oshkosh diversified its product line further with the introduction of the J-Series in 1935. The J-Series trucks had capacities from two to three-and-a-half tons, and they had the classic rounded styling of 1930s automobiles. Oshkosh experimented in the 1930s with rear-wheel-drive vehicles, but the fierceness of competition from mass-production companies forced a quick withdrawal from that market, leaving Oshkosh to continue focusing on four-wheel-drive equipment. Many of Oshkosh's best customers in the 1930s were located in dairy states such as New York and Wisconsin, as well as parts of New England. In those areas, prompt plowing of roads was required throughout the winter to enable delivery from remotely located dairy farms. In 1930 the prices of Oshkosh trucks ranged from $2,885 to $13,500. In 1939 Oshkosh introduced its W-Series truck, which marked Oshkosh's first significant entry into production for military use. The Army Corps of Engineers selected the company's Model W-700 for a variety of operations, including snow removal from Air Corps runways and general wrecker work. Toward the end of World War II, production began on Model W-1600. The W-1600, driven by all three of its axles, was designed for off-road use in oil fields and for pulling heavily laden trailers. Mosling stepped back into the company's presidency in 1944. Under Mosling Oshkosh continued developing the W-Series of trucks, introducing the W-2200 in 1947. The W-2200 could run on either a gasoline or diesel fuel and was virtually unmatched in the size of plows or wings with which it could be equipped. Large numbers of the truck were purchased by mining companies for hauling ore and by sugar companies for plantation to processor transportation.

A 1953 REO M35 A1 .
The M35 started out in 1949 as a design by the REO Motor Car Company as a 2 1/2 ton three axle all wheel drive off road truck that was later nicknamed the "deuce and a half". The first vehicle in the family, the M34, was quickly superseded in military usage by the M35, the major difference being the M35's 10-tire configuration versus the M34's 6-tire configuration. The M35A3 - AM General Produce .
GMC M135 6X6 2.5-Ton Army Cargo Truck. The M-135 Series of 2 1/2 ton cargo trucks was the first successor to the World War II "deuce and a half" (GMC CCKW) that was the backbone of mobility throughout all theaters of that war. It was a hard act to follow, but technology had improved and General Motors was able to create a whole new generation of worthy vehicles. The M135-series trucks were produced by GMC from 1950 through 1955 and were superseded in the U.S. military by the M35-series vehicles M814 AM GENERAL 5 TON CARGO TRUCK 6x6 Military, M809 series. The M809 general utility truck was based on a successful M54 series design , that entered production in 1950. Development on the replacement for the US Army’s M39 truck series began in 1963 but it wasn’t until the early 1970s that the M809 series entered service. The M809 has been used as the basis for a whole range of vehicles and is in service not just with the US Army but the US Marine Corps and several other nations.The M809 series trucks were eventually replaced with a new MTV family of 6x6 utility trucks, however they still remain in service with many other nations. M925 5 Ton 6x6 MILITARY CARGO TRUCK AM General (family M939) The M939 series 5-ton 6x6 truck is a family of United States military logistical transportation trucks which was designed in the late 1970s and has been in service ever since. About 32,000 M939 series trucks are in service. The M939 series is an improved version of the older M809 Truck series of trucks. Launcher Honest John Missile (MGR-1) , base - International Harvester M386 (M-39 Series) An International M386 Launcher which is based on an International Harvester M139C truck. http://www.ferreamole.it/images/honest_john/honest_john.htm
1
2
3 В 1945 г Army Ground Forces Equipment Review Board (Cook Board) рекомендовали провести стандартизацию армейских машин (превести 4 и 6 т машины в 5 тонный 6x6 класс). Работы подстегнула война в Корее. Конструирование начала (G-742) фирма Reo к которой подключилась фирма Diamond T, у которой с Intеrnational было коммерческое соглашение. Mack также с 1952 года участвовал в разработке и производстве автомобилей.
В 1949 году был проведен конкурс, который выиграла фирма REO Motor Car Company , представившая модель с односкатными колесами на всех осях, бензиновым двигателем, автоматически подключаемым передним мостом (transfer case Rockwell) и простой в изготовлении кабиной с брезентовым верхом грузоподъемностью 2.5 тонны по бездорожью (4.5 тонны по асфальту).
Автомобиль был стандартизирован как М34 и пошел в серию в 1950 году. Однако вскоре военные захотели получить еще и модификацию с двухскатной ошиновкой, более пригодную для эксплуатации в Европе. Так появилась модель М35 ("deuce and a half", "Eager Beaver" ). Производство М34 передали фирме Studebaker .
Семейство M35 должно было заменить GMC CCKW и M135 .
К концу 60-х Diamond T перемеcстил производство в Lansing plant, к тому времени Diamond T и Reo были филиалом White. Была разрабатанаи гамма армейских 5-тонных грузовиков 6x6, М40, М63 и М61, M52, M54 G-744 (M39 series) которые потом производили и Kaiser Jeep и AM General . Испытания проводились с участием OTAC (ORDNANCE TANK-AUTOMOTIVE COMMAND). М35 (по прозвищу Трудяга), выпускался также Bombardier Curtiss Wright Kaiser Jeep Kia Studebaker White и AM General
Truck models in the M-135 Series include:

M135 Truck, Cargo, 2 1/2 ton, 6x6
M211 Truck, Cargo, 2 1/2 ton, 6x6
M215 Truck, Dump, 2 1/2 ton, 6x6
M217 Truck, Gasoline Tank, 2 1/2 ton, 6x6
M220 Truck, Shop Van, 2 1/2 ton, 6x6
M221 Truck, Tractor, 2 1/2 ton, 6x6
M222 Truck, Water Tank, 2 1/2 ton, 6x6
The transmission had four forward speeds in two speed ranges. All the driver had to do was select the speed range. The transfer case was single speed, but a lever allowed it to be put into neutral. The axles were full floating hypoid single-reduction type with banjo housings. Front and both rear differentials were interchangeable.
http://www.armytrucks.ca/m135.htm
Родоначальник AM General - Overland, в дальнейшем WillysOverland. После войны вошла в группу Kaiser Jeep, которая в 1964 г. на заводе Studebaker в Саут Бенде наладила выпуск армейских грузовиков 2,5- и 5-тонного классов, ранее изготовлявшихся разными фирмами США. В 1967 г. там было образовано Отделение военной техники и выполнения государственных заказов (Defense & Government Products Division). Зимой 1970 г., когда фирму Kaiser Jeep, выкупила корпорация American Motors Corporation, оно превратилось в Отделение продукции общего назначения (General Products Division), а 1 апреля 1971 г. получило статус компании "АМ Дженерал". Аббревиатура AM указывала официального владельца — концерн American Motors, хотя с первых же дней существования AM General, выполнявшая в основном государственные военные заказы, фактически являлся самостоятельной компанией.
Изготовление 5-тонной гаммы М809 (6x6) началось в конце 1971 г.
M809 series:

M813A1
M814 Truck, Cargo, XLWB
M815 Bolster logging truck
M816 Trucker, Wrecker, Medium
M817 Dump Truck
M818 Tractor Truck
M819 Tractor Wrecker Truck
M820 Expansible Van Truck
M820A2 Expansible Van Truck
M821 Bridge Transporter Stake Truck
M811 Truck, Chassis, Shop Equipment Organizational Repair Truck
M812 Truck, Chassis, Ribbon Bridge Transporter
Patriot Air Defence System
Water Tanker
M812A1 Truck, Chassis, Rocket Launcher
"Воздухозаборник на грузовиках серии M809 располагался с левой стороны капота, тогда как на грузовиках M39 - с правой. Кабина у M809 была той же что и у M39, но капот был длиннее, чтобы вместить более мощный двигатель. Грузовики использовались в армии США до начала 90х, а в морских и воздушных частях - аж до 1999 г." http://www.trucksplanet.com/catalog/model.php?id=344
Transmission: Allison 5-Speed Automatic
Transfer Case: 2-Speed
Модели семейства автомобилей М939:
M923
M924 M925
M926 M927 M928 M929 M930 M931
M932 M934 M935 M936 M942 M944
В 1951~бЗ гг. International изготовляла шасси М40, М63 и М61. Параллельно с Diamond T, (которая сотрудничала с REO в плане стандартизации послевоенного автопарка) International участвовал в разработке стандартного5-тонного грузового армейского 6x6 автомобиля M54 (Серия M-39, Обозначение G-744), который затем производился фирмами:
International Harvester
Kaiser/Kaiser-Jeep
Diamond T
Mack
Шасси включало механическую 5-ступенчатую коробкой передач "Спайсер" (Spicer) с 2-ступенчатой раздаточной "Тимкен" (Timken). В трансмиссии был установлен механизм автоматического включения переднего моста при пробуксовывании задних колес. Грузовик модели M-39 серии включал:
M39 Truck, Chassis
M40 Truck, Chassis
M41 Truck, Cargo
M51 Truck, Dump
M52 Truck, Tractor
M54 Truck, Cargo
M55 Truck, Cargo, Extra Long Wheel Base (XLWB)
M61 Truck, Chassis
M62 Truck, Wrecker, Medium
M63 Truck, Chassis
M64 Truck, Cargo Van
M139 Truck, Chassis.The M-139 C, D, and F models used for the Honest John system had an axle gear ratio of 10.26:1 for improved off-road traction. That may make two items that make the Honest John trucks different.(http://www.com-central.net/index.php?name=Forums&file=viewtopic&p=33329)
M139 Truck, Bridging
M246 Truck, Tractor, Wrecker
M289 Truck, Missile Launcher
M291 Truck, Van, Expansible
M328 Truck, Bridging,
M386 Truck, Missile Launcher. International M386 Launcher which is based on an International Harvester M139C truck.
M543 Truck, Wrecker, Medium
M748 Truck, Bolster (or Logging)
The M39 (a.k.a.G744) series was designed as a 5 ton (4536kg) three axle all wheel drive off road truck to replace World War II era trucks such as 4 and 6 ton 6x6’s built by Brockway, Diamond T, Mack, and White. Rushed into production by International Harvester in 1951, soon Kaiser (renamed Kaiser-Jeep in 1963) also became a major manufacturer[c], with Diamond T and Mack building smaller numbers. The M39 series evolved into the M809 (G908) series[d] in 1969, which followed, but did not replace, it. The M809 Series was then improved into the M939 Series[e] in 1983. Although individual components and dimensions may vary, all three series are mechanically very similar.
http://den-176.livejournal.com/68986.html?thread=194170
http://books.google.ru/books?id=ayEDAAAAMBAJ&dq=popular+science+1951+Strap+yourself+into&q=Eager+Beaver&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=true
http://www.curbsideclassic.com/curbside-classics-american/curbside-classic-1962-studebaker-m35-6x6-truck-a-veteran-for-veterans-day/
http://blog.hemmings.com/index.php/tag/m34-eager-beaver/
http://www.barrettenterprises.net/html/m925.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M35_2%C2%BD-ton_cargo_truck
military-m35a2-duce-and-a-half
axle-shafts

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