Serial standard 6x6 American army Trucks

2,5 t
2,5-ton 6x6 truck was a class of medium trucks designed for the US Armed Forces. The basic cargo versions were designed to transport a 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) cargo load over all terrain in all weather. Widely used in World War II, the "deuce and a half" continued to be the US standard medium duty truck class after the war. Five different designs were standardized by the U.S., two were also standardized by Canada. One was built primarily for Lend-Lease export during World War II, and many others have been exported to smaller militaries. The US began replacing 6x6 trucks with the 4x4 Light Medium Tactical Vehicle (LMTV) in 1991.
In 1939-1940 the US Army Ordnance Corps was developing a ?2 1?2-ton (2,268 kg) load-rated 6?6 tactical cargo truck that could operate off-road in all weather. This size truck could carry a full infantry squad, tow light artillery, and yet be built in large numbers on moving assembly lines. Dump, semi-tractor, tanker, and other bodies were also planned.
Yellow Coach (a GM company), Studebaker, International Harvester, and REO submitted designs, all except REO's were accepted and in production by 1941. Yellow’s CCKW became the Army standard, International’s M-5-6 became Navy and Marine Corps standard, and Studebaker’s US6 was built for export to allied countries. Reo built the Studebaker design.
In the late 1940s the military needed a new standard truck. Chrysler, GMC, REO, and Studebaker submitted designs. The REO design was standardized for all services as the M35, and continued standard until 1990. The GMC was classed as substitute standard M135 in the US but became standard in Canada.

GMC M135
After the REO M35 was standardized GMC submitted a different design. An evolution of the CCKW, the GMC was classed as substitute standard M135 in the US but was widely used by the Canadian Army called the Deuce and a Half.
M135 was the only ?2 1?2-ton truck designed with an automatic transmission. The transmission had 4 speeds and 2 ranges, with a 1-range transfer case. The Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) is a series of vehicles, based on a common chassis, that vary by payload and mission requirements. The FMTV is derived from the Austrian military Steyr 12 M 18 truck, but substantially modified to meet U.S. Army requirements, these including a minimum 50 per cent U.S. content. The M35 2,5-ton cargo truck is a long-lived 2,5-ton 6x6 cargo truck initially used by the United States Army and subsequently utilized by many nations around the world. Over time it evolved into a family of specialized vehicles. It inherited the nickname "Deuce and a Half" from an older 2,5-ton truck, the World War II GMC CCKW.
М35 Военные грузовики GMC М35 начали разрабатывать сразу же после окончания второй мировой войны, североамериканской компанией General Motors Company. Выпускались они несколькими автомобильными фирмами Америки, такими как GMC, REO, Kaiser, и в Южной Корее автомобильной фирмой Kia. Первый грузовик вышел на испытание в 1951 году, а первое боевое применение он получил во время войны в Корее. На грузовик начали устанавливать сразу же несколько модификаций двигателей, один из которых был семилитровый многотопливный двигатель LTD 465 производства фирмы Continental Motor Compani, мощность которого составляла 250 «лошадок», так же многотопливный двигатель фирмы Hercules, дизельные варианты двигателей фирм White Motor Company и Caterpillar.
Коробка передач на всех грузовиках M35 устанавливалась одинаковая — автоматическая 4-х ступенчатая, производства фирмы Allison, а вот раздаточная коробка устанавливалась механическая двухступенчатая, модели 136-21, фирмы Rockwell. Все модификации грузовиков выпускались полноприводными вариантами с колесной формулой 6х6, спереди односкатная ошиновка, задняя тележка двускатная ошиновка, но в очень редких вариантах они были с колесной формулой 4х4. Грузовик получил металлическую кабину, капотной компановки, в большинстве случаев с мягкой брезентовой крышей.
Подвеска грузовика была жесткая зависимая рессорная, в стандартной комплектации грузовики имели централизованную подкачку шин и лебедку с тяговым усилием 10000 килограмм. Грузоподъемность грузовика на пересеченной местности составляла 2,3 тонны, а по дорогом с твердым покрытием достигала 4,5 тонн.
5 t
The M939 series of military trucks was developed in the 1970s. It is an updated version of the earlier M809 series. M939 1970, обновленная версия M809 The M939 Truck is a 5-ton 6x6 U.S. military heavy truck . The basic cargo versions were designed to transport a 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) cargo load over all terrain in all weather. Designed in the late 1970s to replace the M39 and M809 series of trucks, it has been in service ever since. The M939 evolved into its own family of cargo trucks, prime movers, and recovery vehicles, with about 32,000 in all produced.
M939 All models of the M939 share a common basic chassis, cab, and hood/fenders. The basic truck is a 6x6 (three axles, six wheels, all of which are powered) medium truck. Early M939s were rebuilds of M809 vehicle chassis by AM General, with a new automatic transmission, cab, and hood/fender. Suffix –A2 are new production by Bowen-McLaughlin-York/BMY with later model Cummins engine. The vehicles have a wide variety of configurations and weights.
Взамен 6x6 Brockway, Diamond T, Mack, and White разработана M39 Kaiser-Jeep в 1951, M39 серия в 1969 году заменена серией M809 AM General, а в 1982 году серией M939 AM General. In the late 1960s the US Army needed more 5-ton (4,536 kg) 6x6 trucks . Kaiser-Jeep developed an updated version of the M39 series which had been in service since 1951. The primary difference was the engine change to Cummins. The hood and grille were lengthened to make room for the longer engine and the lighting system was updated to meet new US safety regulations. All had an air cleaner on the left fender, a way to tell them from the earlier M39 series. The M39 (G744) series was designed as a 5-ton (4536 kg), three-axle all-wheel-drive off-road truck to replace World War II-era trucks such as 4- and 6-ton 6x6s built by Brockway, Diamond T, Mack, and White. Rushed into production by International Harvester in 1951, soon Kaiser (renamed Kaiser-Jeep in 1963) also became a major manufacturer, with Diamond T and Mack building smaller numbers. The M39 series evolved into the M809 (G908) series in 1969, which followed, but did not replace, it. The M809 Series was then improved into the M939 series.
M54, M54 основная модель M39 серии
The M54 5-ton 6x6 truck (G744) was the basic cargo model of the M39 Series truck. It was designed to transport a 10,000 lb (4,500 kg), 14-foot-long (4.3 m) cargo load off-road in all weather. In on-road service the load weight was doubled.
The M54 was the primary heavy cargo truck of the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine forces during the Vietnam War, and was also used by the U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, and ARVN forces.
The M39 Series began to be replaced by the M809 series in 1970, followed by the M939 series in 1982, but continues to serve in other nations' armed forces around the world.
M809 The M809 general utility truck was based on a successful M54 series design, that entered production in 1950 and remained in production for over 30 years. M809 1974, превратилась в M939
The M809 Series 5-ton 6x6 truck (G908) was a family of heavy tactical trucks built for the United States Armed Forces. The basic cargo version was designed to transport a 5-ton (4,500 kg), 14 ft (4.3 m) long load over all terrain in all weather. In on-road service the load weight was doubled. Built by AM General, they evolved into the M939 Series.
M809 разработана на базе M54 Kaiser-Jeep was awarded the M809-series contract DAAE06-69-C-0009 and built them during 1969 and into 1970. In February 1970, Kaiser-Jeep was purchased by American Motors Corporation and on March 26, 1970, Kaiser-Jeep was reorganized as the "Jeep Corporation." The South Bend facilities where the M809-series was being built subsequently became Jeep Corporation's "General Products Division." Just over a year later, on March 31, 1971, this General Products Division was spun off and became "AM-General," a wholly owned subsidiary of American Motors Corporation" . In 1974, a new contract for the M809-series was awarded to AM General, DAAE07-74-C-0120. This contract covered trucks built over the next 5 years at least. AM-General built all M809-series trucks between 1971 and 1982. In 1982, the M809-series was then improved into the M939 series. The first 11,000 M939s were rebuilds of M809s. The M39 (G744) series was designed as a 5-ton (4536 kg), three-axle all-wheel-drive off-road truck to replace World War II-era trucks such as 4- and 6-ton 6x6s built by Brockway, Diamond T, Mack, and White. Rushed into production by International Harvester in 1951, soon Kaiser (renamed Kaiser-Jeep in 1963) also became a major manufacturer, with Diamond T and Mack building smaller numbers. The M39 series evolved into the M809 (G908) series in 1969, which followed, but did not replace, it. The M809 Series was then improved into the M939 series.
Стандартизованную 5-тонную серию М39 компания AM General выпускала недолго, собрав последние из 112 тыс. машин этой гаммы. Еще в 1970 г. конструкторы других предприятий приступили к разработке нового семейства, но эта работа была завершена на AM General. В конце 1971 г. в Саут Бенде началось изготовление новой 5-тонной гаммы М809 (6x6) полной массой 14,0–15,2 т, оборудованной новым дизелем Cummins NHC250 (14,0 л, 243 л.с.), механической 5-ступенчатой коробкой передач, двойной главной передачей, гидропневматической тормозной системой, гидроусилителем рулевого управления и 24-вольтовым электрооборудованием. Выпускались следующие версии: — M809 — базовое шасси 6х6 с длинной колесной базой 4547 мм.
— M810 — базовое шасси 6х6 с короткой колесной базой 4242 мм.
— M811 — базовое шасси 6х6 с экстра длинной колесной базой 5461 мм. Одним из кузовов был SEORTM с открывающимися боковыми частями в виде крыльев. Внутри располагались всевозможные строительные инструменты — токарные станки, перфораторы, шлифмашинки, сварочные аппараты и пр.
— M812 — шасси 6х6 с экстра длинной колесной базой 5461 мм предназначенное для транспортировки секции моста. Также на его основе выпускалась ракетная установка.
— M813 — бортовой грузовик 6х6 на шасси M809 с металлическим кузовом со съемными скамейками. Существовала версия M813A1 с откидывающимися боковыми бортами.
— M814 — бортовой грузовик 6х6 на шасси M811 с металлическим кузовом со съемными скамейками.
— M815 — грузовик 6х6 для перевозки труб, бревен или секций моста. Обладал укрепленной кабиной и использовался в сцепке с прицепом M796.
— M816 — ремонтно-эвакуационная машина 6х6.
— M817 — самосвал 6х6 с 3,8-кубовым кузовом.
— M818 — седельный тягач 6х6.
— M819 — кран 6х6.
— M820 — фургон 6х6. Выпускались версии: M820 — с окнами, обогрев, кондиционер, питание от внешнего источника; M820A1 — без окон и кондиционера, но с обогревом; M820A2 — с окнами, обогревом, кондиционером и гидравлическим лифтом.
— M821 — грузовик 6х6 для транспортировки секции моста.
Воздухозаборник на грузовиках серии M809 располагался с левой стороны капота, тогда как на грузовиках M39 — с правой. Кабина у M809 была той же что и у M39, но капот был длиннее, чтобы вместить более мощный двигатель. Грузовики использовались в армии США до начала 90х, а в морских и воздушных частях — аж до 1999 г.
The M809 general utility truck was based on a successful M54 series design, that entered production in 1950 and remained in production for over 30 years. M813 cargo truck; M814 long wheelbase cargo truck; M815 bolster truck; M816 recovery vehicle; M817 dump truck; M818 tractor truck; M819 recovery vehicle; M820 van-bodied truck; M821 bridge transporter.
The M939 series of military trucks was developed in the 1970s. It is an updated version of the earlier M809 series. M923 standard cargo truck with a soft-top cab; M925 similar to the M923, but fitted with a winch; M927 long wheelbase cargo truck; M928 similar to the M927, but fitted with a winch; M929 dump truck; M930 similar to the M929, but fitted with a winch; M931 tractor truck, equipped with a fifth wheel and used to haul semitrailers with loads up to 16 800 kg off-road and 24 900 kg on hard surface roads; M932 similar to the M931, but fitted with a winch; M934 van body, often used as a mobile command post; M936 wrecker. Its winch and crane capacities are similar to the M816 wrecker
The Diamond T 4-ton 6?6 truck , was a heavy tactical truck built for the United States Army during World War II. Its G-number was (G-509). Cargo models were designed to transport a 4-ton (3,600 kg) load over all terrain in all weather. There were also wrecker, dump, and other models. They were replaced by the M39 series 5-ton 6x6 trucks in the 1950s. 1952 GMC XM211 6x6 The M135 is a 2 1/2 ton truck made by General Motors Corporation (GMC). Also referred to as a "Deuce-and-a-half". While it came in several different variations, the most common was the cargo version. You could hold a dozen troops in the back, or could fill it with equipment/supplies. Other variations included a double wheeled version (M211), a dump truck, crane, shop truck, kitchen truck, tow truck (recovering vehicle), fuel truck, water truck, and many others. The M135 platform was one of the most versatile made, letting the military install pretty much whatever type of equipment on it that they needed. Powering this truck was a GMC 270 gas engine. All Canadian models of the truck had a 5 speed hydromatic transmission (2 high gears, 2 low gears and a reverse). Which was one of the very first automatic transmissions available at the time. This made it much easier for just about anyone to jump in and drive it away. Also included on some models was a PTO (power take off) which either powered a winch located on the front bumper, or a large list of different pieces of equipment installed on/in the back of the truck. The M135 was a six-wheel variant of the M211. Instead of ten 9.00-20 tires, these trucks were fitted with six 11.00-20 tires. Although it had been proven during WWII that large single tires provided superior off-road performance for many vehicles, especially in desert operations, dual wheeled trucks were generally better for highway hauling and all-around use. The M135 cargo bed featured wheel wells, while the M211?s bed did not. Several different styles of cargo beds were tested on the M135. Программа разработки семейства средних тактических автомобилей на едином шасси (под таким названием) велась на конкурсной основе. Стартовала она в начале 1988 года с обращения Автобронетанкового управления Армии США к компаниям военной промышленности подготовить и направить до апреля того же года свои аванпроекты на рассмотрение армейских чинов, контракты на проведение опытно-конструкторских работ 21 октября 1988 года получили корпорации: 1) Teledyne-Continental Motors Corp.[en], Маскигон, Мичиган; 2) Stewart and Stevenson Services, Inc.[en], Хьюстон, Техас; 3) Tactical Truck Corp. (совместное предприятие General Motors Military Operation и Bowen-McLaughlin-York Wheeled Vehicle Division), Уоррен, Мичиган. От каждой из перечисленных корпораций требовалось за 14 месяцев изготовить по пятнадцать опытных прототипов машин (восемь 5-тонных и семь 21?2-тонных) и пять трейлеров к ним (три 5-тонных и два 21?2-тонных соответственно). Машина Teledyne имела шасси Freightliner, а в команде GMC/BMY произошёл раскол, GMC устранилась от дальнейшего участия в конкурсе, и Tactical Truck использовала наработки BMY. Эксперты оценивали потенциальную стоимость программы закупок сначала в $15 млрд, затем в $20,4 млрд[2]. Программа полигонных испытаний продолжительностью десять месяцев предполагала обкатку машин в различных условиях на Абердинском испытательном полигоне в Мэриленде, Юмском испытательном полигоне в Аризоне, Исследовательском центре инженерных войск в Виксберге, Миссисипи, а также на танкодроме Училища танковых войск в Форт-Ноксе, Кентукки. Впоследствии, к перечисленным местам испытаний добавился Форт-Стюарт, Джорджия. Прототипы всех трёх участников отличались высокими ходовыми качествами и другими сопоставимыми достоинствами. 11 октября 1991 года производственный контракт на сумму $1,2 млрд сроком на пять лет был заключён с компанией Stewart and Stevenson. Согласно условиям контракта от производителя требовалось поставить заказчику 11 тыс. машин, из которых 4,4 тыс. (40%) 5-тонных и 6,6 тыс. (60%) 21?2-тонных (исходно предполагалось закупить в общей сложности 20 тысяч машин, но цифра в конечном итоге была снижена до 10843 ед.). The Oshkosh® Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) stands alone as the get-things-done resource for military operations. Crew-protecting armor and advanced technologies work in concert to provide the capability, versatility, mobility and protection to move troops and supplies, recover vehicles and weapon systems or haul equipment wherever the mission requires. For durability, reliability and advanced performance, the FMTV has been proven time and time again. It meets the demands – of the mission, of the battlefield and of the military personnel who rely on it. Commonality of parts – over 80 percent – across chassis variants significantly reduces the logistics burden as well as operational and support costs. And with a Long-Term Armor Strategy-compliant cab and other advanced technologies, military personnel get the enhanced protection they need to confidently complete their missions.
M1078 LMTV In 1991 a Stewart & Stevenson company was awarded a large-scale contract to manufacture the US Army's new Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) with the intention that eventually all the existing (and ageing) medium trucks in the Army's inventory would be replaced by a modern and efficient design. First production vehicles were delivered to the US Army in 1996. Since 2012 these trucks are produced by Oshkosh Corporation.
M-916 Light Equipment Transporter The Truck, Tractor: 20-Ton, Light Equipment, 6x6, 56,000 GVW M916, M916A1, M916A2, and M916A3 are used primarily with to tow compatible semitrailers -- low bed type M172A1, 25-ton payload and M870, 40-ton payload -- to transport engineer construction equipment in the local, line haul and maintenance evacuation missions on primary, secondary and off-road conditions. They have an on-board winch capable of pulling engineer construction equipment onto the M870 semitrailer. The maximum GCVW, when towing the M870 40-ton semitrailer, is 130,000 pounds. Freightliner delivered more than 1,070 of these vehicles to the Army from 1990 to the 2000s.
GMC 6?6 Cargo Army Truck in WW2
When the US Army Quartermaster Corps began developing its so-called ‘Standard Fleet’ around 1928, the 60 or so vehicles included were broken into five groups numbered I to 5, each roughly corresponding to a weight class.
Among the new designs in group I, the lightest weight class, there were two 2.5 -ton 6?6 vehicles. When they were subsequently rolled out of the shops of the Hoiabird Quartermaster’s Depot in 1932, one, W3228, was powered by a Duesenberg J engine, while the other, W3229, was powered by a Lycoming. In time, a Franklin air-cooled V12 was also trialled in one of the vehicles.
It is worth noting that during this time, a certain AW Herrington was employed by the Motor Transport Division of the Quartermaster Corps. While the Standard Fleet did not enter mass production, the vehicles created were instrumental in defining future generations of US Army tactical vehicles. The Standard Fleet had been created with the purpose of crafting vehicles built to wholly military specifications using standardised components, as opposed to the previous process of buying commercial vehicles from a variety of manufacturers – vehicles that might have closely fitted military needs, but were rarely exactly what the US Army wanted. Ultimately however, Congress and the Comptroller General of the United States decreed that the Army could not produce its own vehicles as it had with the Standard Fleet, but rather had to rely on private enterprise for its future needs.
Although those with dual rear wheels faired better, the off-road shortcomings of two-axle vehicles, even 4x4s, were obvious. Accordingly, consideration was given to 6?6 trucks, and in 1933 the Army procured a commercial 2.5-ton 6?6. Designated the TL29-6, this truck was manufactured by the Indianapolis-based Marmon-Herrington Company, which had AW Herrington, no longer in the service of the Army, as one of its principals.
The TL29-6 was not without competition, as Corbitt offered the Army its 168-FD8.
While neither design was an outright failure, neither offered the Army what it wanted at the price it wanted to pay. At this point in time, powered front axles were still in their infancy, and vehicles so equipped were limited-production, expensive, specialist machines. However, the concept had piqued the interest of the GMC Division of automotive titan General Motors.
GMC had its origins in the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company and the Reliance Motor Company, both Detroit-based independent truck manufacturers. W C Durant, who began assembling the corporate behemoth that would become General Motors, purchased Reliance in 1908, and followed that with the purchase of Rapid in 1909. Reliance and Rapid combined to form the General Motors Truck Company, and the GMC logo first appeared in 1911.
In Chicago, an empire was also being built by John D Hertz – later of rental car fame – who owned Yellow Cab. In November 1922 he purchased the Lake Shore Motor Bus Company, which included the American Motor Bus Manufacturing Company. The initial function of the firm was to provide buses for the Chicago Motor Bus Company, also controlled by Hertz, but it was soon selling motor coaches to other operators.
On 17 April 1923, the American Motor Bus Manufacturing Company was sold to the Yellow Cab Manufacturing Company, which promptly reorganised as the Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company.
The business prospered, with well over 2000 units being delivered between August 1923 and July 1925, about half going to Hertz-controlled firms. The company’s success was noted by Alfred P Sloan, chairman of General Motors, and, on 8 July 1925, a merger of General Motors with Yellow Coach Manufacturing was announced. General Motors would get 60% of the new holding company, Yellow Truck and Coach Company, in exchange for the assets of General Motors Truck Company (GMC) and the obscure GM subsidiary of Northway Motor and Manufacturing Company.
On 26 August 1925, the deal was consummated and, in March 1927, the new firm acquired a 160-acre tract of land near Pontiac, Michigan, for the construction of a new assembly plant.
Trucks began leaving the assembly line on 5 January 1928. With 26 acres under cover, it was at the time the world’s largest truck plant.
It was from this formidable position that General Motors entered into the US Army 6?6 fray in response to a 1937 invitation to bid. Its purpose-built model 4929 was a stylish 1.5-ton truck featuring an Oldsmobile 230 engine mated to a Chevrolet four-speed transmission, powering Timken axles through a Wisconsin T32 transfer case. The front-end sheet metal was Chevrolet pattern, and the truck chassis was a modified Yellow commercial unit. Utilising such readily available components both lowered unit cost and speeded up production. In total, 229 were built against contract 398-QM-6270 valued at $539,534, and the last was delivered on the final day of May 1938.
Also in 1938, GMC’s efforts to develop an engine for use in commercial vehicles bore fruit when its 4067cc six-cylinder design emerged. This engine would play an important role in GMC’s future military contracts, as would the model 4929 truck. However, the engine’s first military application was to power the 21/2-ton 6?6 model 4937, only 11 of which were built – 10 for the US Marine Corps and one for export. With the exception of the engine, the rest of the powertrain was shared with the model 4929.
In 1939 the US Army issued solicitation to bid number 398-40-2601939 and the die was cast for the truck that would ultimately become the ubiquitous CCKW. The specification called for a cross-country payload of 5000 lb (2273kg), required a top speed of 45mph (72km/h) and demanded the ability to climb a 1:30 gradient in direct drive.
Studebaker and Mack responded to the solicitation, as did Yellow Truck and Coach, the latter designating its new design the model ACKWX-353 (A = 1939 model year; C = conventional cab; K = selective front-wheel drive; W = driven tandem axles; X = non-standard (Timken) driveline; 353 = chassis code). Bids were opened on 18 May 1939, and the contract awarded to GM on 15 June of the same year. The company delivered 32 of the new trucks on 4 January 1940, with one more four days later, all powered by the same 4067cc engine as the model 4929 and 4937. Thereafter, the ACKWX-353 was powered by a 4198cc version of the same engine.
While the GMC parts book indicates that the serial number range for these vehicles was ACKWX353-3604 through ACKWX353-6070, totaling 2466 vehicles, GM’s records show that 2469 were built under contract for the US government (this includes the 33 trucks powered by the 4067cc engine). Fifty of the trucks, all powered by the larger capacity engine, were equipped with winches. A further single unit was built for GM’s demonstration purposes, and a single right-hand drive version with the 4067cc engine was built for the French, with another possibly for Switzerland. By far the largest overseas order was for 1000 trucks with the 4198cc engine, which went to Great Britain in 1941 on sales order 10000-999.
While it has been reported that some overseas customers felt that the 4198cc powerplant was too much engine for the truck, the feeling Stateside was that the vehicle needed more reserve power. GM therefore responded by beefing up the engine to a more formidable 4428cc. Not content to merely increase the stroke, GM also improved bearings and cylinder head cooling at the same time. Incredibly, the first engine was run less than a month after the concept was floated on 18 July 1940, and the foundation was laid upon which to build the next generation of military 6x6s, the CCKWX.

In September of 1941 Yellow Coaches' founder, John D. Hertz, went to work for Uncle Sam. In its Sep 22, 1941 issue Time Magazine reported:

“Hertz to MTD
“As a little boy welcomes his dentist, the U.S. Army last week welcomed big, tough John Daniel Hertz, 62, sent over from his great & good friend Harry Hopkins' wing of the White House to straighten the kinks in the Army's Motor Transport Division. MTD needs 286,000 vehicles, now has only 210,000 of all types; it is also dangerously short of repair stations and spare parts. Straightening these kinks is a businessman's job.
“John Hertz is a businessman and a tough one. He founded Yellow Cab Co., in 1925 sold it (and Yellow Cab Manufacturing Co.) to General Motors for more than $30,000,000, retired to the race tracks. But he never quit working, has since dabbled in movies (Paramount), aviation (T.W.A.), more transportation (New York City Omnibus and Omnibus Corp.).
“Hertz's intentions, not his background, worry the Army. Two fears: 1) that he will yank MTD away from the Army, make it an independent bureau; 2) that he will work too fast, redden the face of many a poky brass hat. As aides, Hertz will use businessmen, not Army officers.
“Last week he tapped 260-lb. John A. Ritchie, bus-bigwig; this week will draft other transportation big shots.”
By that time the employees of Yellow Truck & Coach had already joined the War effort. General Motors various division made tremendous contributions to the War effort, producing tanks and 16 different types of trucks for the Allies ranging from diminutive 1?-ton arms repair vehicles to massive 8-ton truck-tractors. Yellow Truck & Coach division was selected to produce the 2-1/2-ton CCKW 6-cylinder 6x6 truck, without a doubt one of the two most important vehicles of the war, and numerically the most important.
The first versions off the line in early 1941 were commercial-based COE (cab-over-engine) 2?-ton units classified as ACKWX by the military. The first orders for the standard control 2?-ton CCKW units followed in September 1941, the first order being equipped with standard closed GMC truck cabs.
Ensuing contracts called for a more accessible military-spec closed and convertible cab and although Yellow Truck & Coach produced 527,100 units between 1941 and 1945, they were unable to build all of the approximately 800,000 required so Studebaker, REO and International Harvester split the remaining business.
In addition to its use by US Forces, the CCKW was supplied under Lend-Lease to Canada, Britain and Free France. Available in two wheelbases, the standard CCKW cargo truck was the most popular, other variants included a water tanker, gasoline tanker, machine shop, bomb transporter, radio truck, dump truck (tippable cargo body) and fire truck. A small number were built in knocked-down form, requiring the front and rear chassis to be bolted together during the reassembly process.
Most memorable was the amphibious DUKW variant of which 2,000 examples were built by Yellow Coach. Designed to make the transition from ship to shore more tolerable, innumerable uses were discovered and they remain the only World-War II era vehicle in regular use today. Tour operators in Austin, Boston, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Seattle and Washington D.C. continue to operate the 60+ year-old-vehicles on a daily basis.
On July 14, 1943, the General Motors board agreed to a reorganization of its two commercial vehicle manufacturing divisions (Yellow Truck & Coach & GMC Truck) into a single entity, GMC Truck & Coach Division, which came into being on September 30, 1943. Irving B. Babcock became general manager of GMC Truck & Coach and with the approval of the War Production Board, limited civilian bus and truck production commenced in March of 1944. Unfortunately the new buses were now badged as GM Coaches and the Yellow name was retired forever.
The hard work of Yellow Truck & Coaches' employees during the War was honored by an Army-Navy "E" award on June 2, 1944. The Army-Navy Award for Excellence in War Production was typically normally awarded when a firm completed a large order for the US War effort or filled an order in a short period of time. At the ceremony, the employees would be given an enameled pin mounted on a card certifying their contribution to the war effort with a message from the president. The employer would be presented with an “E’ flag and banner and outstanding employees would be presented with a special certificate.
The Yellow Coach Story is continued CLICK HERE for Appendices
With the outbreak of World War II, Yellow Truck & Coach started making six-wheel-drive military trucks. Between 1943 and 1945, about 527,100 of these 2-1/2-ton "Jimmys" were built in different lengths, configurations and body styles including cargo trucks, dump trucks, tankers, bomb transporters and fire engines. An amphibious version called the DUKW--and nicknamed the "Duck"--was developed in 43 days. It proved to be so good that 2000 copies were built and earned fame in combat. In September 1943, GM bought out the assets of Yellow Truck & Coach and renamed it GMC Truck & Coach Division.
GMC resumed building civilian trucks under War Production Board authorization in March 1944. These were called "Victory" or "interim" models. For high achievement in the production of war equipment, GMC Truck & Coach Division received an Army-Navy "E" award on June 2, 1944. On the last day of the year, Morgan D. Douglas was appointed general manager of the Truck & Coach division.

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